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DIFFERENT LEVELS OF PROOF
Before the various steps of the criminal justice system can be initiated — arrest, booking, arraignment and sentencing — different levels of proof are required. The levels of proof recognized by law are as follows:
Suspicion: The lowest level of proof justifying a police action. Suspicion may occur when a police officer has only slight evidence to believe that a crime has been or is in the process of being committed. It permits a police officer to initiate an investigation.
Reasonable Belief: It is a specific and reasonable conclusion drawn from observable facts. It permits the police to stop and search a person when they have reason to believe they are dealing with armed and dangerous persons.
Probable Cause: This higher level of proof exists when one has sufficient and reliable information that a crime has been committed and that the accused has committed that crime. It is the standard used for arrest, search and arraignment.
Preponderance of Evidence: This means that the weight of evidence is greater for one side than for the other. This is sufficient for making a judgment in civil cases, but not enough to convict in criminal cases.
It is difficult to distinguish between each of the levels of the proof. Yet the different levels of proof serve as a good illustration of how society attempts to deal with the problem of protecting the state from crime while at the same time guaranteeing and protecting an individuals liberty. The aim is to limit police actions that are unreasonable or discriminatory while at the same time making it possible for the police to enforce the law.
Задание 2. Перепишите только верные утверждения по тексту "DIFFERENT LEVELS OF PROOF".
1. The lowest level of proof justifying a police action is suspicion.
2. Reasonable belief is a specific and reasonable conclusion drawn from observable facts.
3. Reasonable belief is the highest level of proof.
4. It is easy to distinguish between the levels of the proof.
5. The aim is to limit police actions that are unreasonable or discriminatory while at the same time making it possible" for the police to enforce the law.
Задание № 3. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык предложения с причастиями (Participle I, Participle II), обращая внимание на особенности их образования и перевода. Выпишите причастия. Определите их форму и функцию,
1. Cases are usually being classified as civil, criminal and administrative.
2. The police office is investigating the latest robbery,
3. The case having been heard the juror must take into account the evidence of witnesses.
4. Organized crime is a lawless empire involved in gambling, narcotics, extortion, etc,
5. The accused person was taken to prison.
6. Having read the article we started to discuss it at the seminar.
Задание № 4. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык предложения с причастными оборотами, обратите внимание на особенности их образования и перевода. Определите причастные обороты в предложениях.
1. The article being interesting and useful, I used it in my course-paper.
2. The Constitution is considered proclaimed as the main law of every country.
3. We heard her answering the question on the US Constitution.
4. The crime was reported having been committed by Monday.
Задание № 5, Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык предложения с герундием (Gerund), обратите внимание на особенности его образования и перевода. Определите форму и функцию герундия в предложениях.
1. The police finished investigating the case.
2. His being guilty is evident for everybody.
3. We are against having punished him so severely.
4. Laws are made with the aim of combating crime.
5. Protecting the society against crime is the main task of police work.
Задание № 6. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие условные придаточные предложения I, II и III типа. Обратите внимание на особенности их образования и перевода.
1. If a person wants to make a will, he will go to a solicitor.
2. If he were a bad man, I should not try to defend him,
3. The judge would have been more confident in his decision, if more witnesses had been invited to the Court,
Задание № 7. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, обращая внимание на соблюдение правила о согласовании времён.
1. We understood that a great part of investigative work was devoted to finding missing or wanted persons.
2. After the investigation had obtained some additional evidence, the criminal was arrested.
3. We were told that the study of fingerprints was the best means available for identifying victims.
4. It was clear that he had been guilty.
Задание № 8. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык предложения, содержащие сослагательное наклонение, обращая внимание на особенности его образования и перевода.
1. It is important that the student be present at the lecture.
2. If bail could be great enough, staying in jail until the trail could produce an additional effect on the offender and make him confess.
3. I wish I could help this man to prove his innocence.
4. Many situations could lead to a serious breach of public order, or to a serious crime.