Контрольная по английскому № 4
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1. Translate the text given below in a written form.
Coast Guard inquiry into oil pollution
The Irish Coast Guard and its Canadian counterparts are investigating a pollution incident in Irish waters that may be linked to a ship on a transatlantic passage.
A large bulk carrier believed to be discharging oil from its bilges was detected by satellite imagery some 100 miles off the southwest coast late last week.
The suspect ship is due to berth in a Canadian port this week, where it is expected the authorities will carry out a port state inspection.
Irish Coast Guard director Chris Reynolds said the discharge did not constitute a serious pollution risk, but it was against the law.
"As ships are leaving Europe, which is heavily regulated, it is sometimes very tempting to pump bilges in the Atlantic to save on costs in port,” Mr. Reynolds said.
"This practice is illegal anywhere, but it is against Irish law within our 200-mile exclusive economic zone,” he said.
The incident was spotted during Irish Coast Guard monitoring of a separate authorised ship-to-ship fuel transfer on the Porcupine Basin. A three-dimensional seismic survey is being undertaken on the north Porcupine Basin by Providence Resources plc.
The legal transfer of fuel was permitted by the Irish Coast Guard to save the survey ship having to return to shore for fuel, missing four to five days of seismic work.
"As a general principle this activity is not encouraged but given the particular difficulties faced, a permit was granted by the Irish Coast Guard with strict environmental, safety and weather conditions,” Mr Reynolds said.
"A specialist ship-to-ship inspector was embarked for the duration, and all costs for monitoring the operation by inspector and by satellite were paid for by the operator.”
The Irish Coast Guard works closely with the European Maritime Safety Agency on reducing maritime accidents and pollution risks.
2. Translate the text given below in a written form.
Fire hazards in the engine room
The engine room of a seagoing ship is a very fire prone area. It houses about 130 different types of machinery with their associated risks. It also houses numerous tanks of heated fuel oils, lubricating oils, diesel oil, greases, and chemicals, etc. An average size ship consumes about 40 tons of fuel oil in a day; the same amount is pumped from the double bottom tanks, and is heated, filtered, allowed to sediment, purified, clarified, conditioned, reheated, and sent to the main engine for combustion. Heated fuel oils range in temperature as high as 120 to 150 degrees Celsius. It runs in kilometers of piping and often at a pressure as high as 1200 bars (in high pressure pipes during injection for a short length).
The engine room houses machines like steam boilers used for the production of steam for heating fuel oil, accommodation, and cargoes, where fuel is burnt inside in a furnace in controlled combustion. Incinerator wastes like oily rags, sludge, and other operational wastes are burnt at a temperature of 850 degrees C and above. Thus all these types of machines with their devices and piping can cause a fire hazard if not properly maintained, or if there is an automation failure, fatigue of material, or vibration failure. A fire in the engine room, unless restricted in the initial stages often goes out of control, causing many times the loss of the ship and life. Thus it is imperative that the machineries and the fire detection and firefighting systems are maintained in efficient condition.
3. Answer the following questions
1. What does the engine room house?
2. Why is the engine room a very fire prone area?
3. How much oil does an average size ship consume a day?
4. What is the temperature of heated oil?
5. What often goes out of control unless restricted in the initial stages?
6. What can cause a fire if not properly maintained?
7. What can happen if there is fatigue of material?
4. Translate from Russian into English
1. Машинное отделение предрасположено к пожарам.
2. В машинном отделении много емкостей с разогретым топливом, смазочным маслом, смазкой и химикатами.
3. Судно среднего размера потребляет 40 тон топлива в день.
4. 40 тон топлива выкачивается из емкостей двойного дна, нагревается и фильтруется.
5. Топливо проходит километры трубопровода и часто под давлением 1200 бар.
Ships are large, complex vehicles which must be self-sustaining in their environment for long periods with a high degree of reliability. A ship is the product of two main areas of skill, those of the naval architect and the marine engineer. The naval architect is concerned with the hull, its construction, form, habitability and ability to endure its environment. The marine engineer is responsible for the various systems which propel and operate the ship. More specifically, this means the machinery required for propulsion, steering, anchoring and ship securing, cargo handling, air conditioning, power generation and its distribution. Some overlap in responsibilities occurs between naval architects and marine engineers in areas such as propeller design, the reduction of noise and vibration in the ship's structure, and engineering services provided to considerable areas of the ship. A ship might reasonably be divided into three distinct areas: the cargo-carrying holds or tanks, the accommodation and the machinery space. Depending upon the type each ship will assume varying proportions and functions. An oil tanker, for instance, will have the cargo-carrying region divided into tanks by two longitudinal bulkheads and several transverse bulkheads. There will be considerable quantities of cargo piping both above and below decks. The general cargo ship will have various cargo holds which are usually the full width of the vessel and formed by transverse bulkheads along the ship's length. Cargo handling equipment will be arranged on deck and there will be large hatch openings closed with steel hatch covers. The accommodation areas in each of these ship types will be sufficient to meet the requirements for the ship's crew, provide a navigating bridge area and a communications centre. The machinery space size will be decided by the particular machinery installed and the auxiliary equipment necessary. A passenger ship, however, would have a large accommodation area, since this might be considered the 'cargo space'. Machinery space requirements will probably be larger because of air conditioning equipment, stabilisers and other passenger related equipment.
6. Put the question to the underlined words.
1. Cargo handling equipment will be arranged on deck.
2. The naval architect is concerned with the hul.
3. A ship might reasonably be divided into three distinct areas.
7. Get ready to give an oral answer to the following questions.
1. How many parts does a ship consist of?
2. What are they?
3. Who keeps watch in the engine room?
4. What are the wiper`s duties?
5. Who orders spare parts?